횡성출장안마✥출장부르는법☁횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성손목터널증후군 마사지』⇏﹛횡성안마방 노콘﹜⇩횡성호텔 걸⇅횡성연신내 마사지➺횡성안마방 후장✑횡성안마방 위치»횡성수원역 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

군산출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

횡성출장안마♫예약♠횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성안마방 vs 오피』⇟﹛횡성맛사지﹜♞횡성서울역 마사지✕횡성세r시 마사지┞횡성청소년 안마방╦횡성기획 마사지♤횡성출장샵안내

The governments of more than 190 nations 천안의정부 여관 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

횡성출장안마£예약금없는출장샵♥횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성마사지 볼』☪﹛횡성안마방 사이트﹜☴횡성소라넷 안마방⇪횡성안마방 김치남♖횡성이종찬 마사지⇐횡성섹슈얼 마사지☞횡성관자놀이 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

횡성출장안마╥24시출장샵➳횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성대전 유성 안마방』►﹛횡성앙헬레스 마사지﹜●횡성부산 안마방•횡성나고야 여성 전용 마사지➧횡성베이징 안마방↴횡성송도 마사지⇐횡성선릉 마사지

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 전주출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

횡성출장안마❄24시출장샵♫횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성op』➠﹛횡성출장소이스﹜δ횡성안산 대딸방♐횡성서울 안마방 추천ღ횡성안마방 하드⊙횡성동네 안마방ナ횡성마사지 앱

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 상주출장서비스 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

횡성출장안마✍24시출장샵ヌ횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성다낭 마사지』↡﹛횡성국노﹜⇎횡성정선 사북 마사지┦횡성사타구니 마사지☞횡성안마방 가는 법♠횡성신촌 마사지ロ횡성응암 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 진주출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

횡성출장안마횡성손목터널증후군 마사지

  • 칠곡동탄 마사지
  • 횡성하이퐁 마사지
  • 횡성출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    횡성출장안마ヤ24시출장샵﹌횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성안마방 ㅇㄷ』♣﹛횡성부산 안마방 추천﹜╭횡성헬로 마사지▲횡성마사지 어플▒횡성태국 마사지 토렌트シ횡성고등학생 안마방⇃횡성마산 모텔 추천

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 논산안마방 와꾸 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 부산출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    철원포이 펫 카지노 롤링 jasonboy.xyz 평택안마방 오피
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 울산출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    횡성출장안마┲예약↦횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성미시출장안마』↕﹛횡성엉덩이 마사지﹜➸횡성안마방 체험➵횡성방이동 마사지╈횡성제목없음 안마방⇘횡성50m♫횡성에가오 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 장수아로마 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    횡성출장안마☂24시출장샵☪횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성인천 마사지』 ﹛횡성마사지 수면실﹜✪횡성고잔동 마사지┈횡성곤지암 마사지▥횡성림프 마사지 금기 사항♩횡성불광동 마사지▄횡성이하루 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    정읍장요근 마사지
    충주일산 마사지 구미출장안마 강원도마사지 받다가
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    횡성출장안마♕예약✆횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성양평 마사지』╀﹛횡성포항 아가씨﹜♕횡성배곧 마사지♐횡성군자역 안마방➛횡성삼성역 마사지╘횡성익산 안마방┣횡성다크서클 없애는 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대전출장샵 .

    횡성출장안마▩예약금없는출장샵♠횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성장안동 안마방』⇩﹛횡성콜걸추천﹜┚횡성베트남 안마방▌횡성동대구 모텔☚ 횡성낙성대 마사지↾횡성군산 안마방☀횡성베이징 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 춘천범일동 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    횡성출장안마◐예약금없는출장샵╗횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성여자 부르는 가격』✁﹛횡성강서구 마사지﹜┵횡성태국 마사지 후기ヤ횡성아로마 마사지◦횡성수원 안마방⇞횡성덕천동 마사지0횡성방이동 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    횡성출장안마✪예약♞횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성상인동 안마방』オ﹛횡성부산 연산동 출장﹜♂횡성안마방 질싸╡횡성베트남 마사지✙횡성쉼터 안마방☃횡성타이 마사지 가격↔횡성크리스마스 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 용인안마방 질싸 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 천안출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 부산출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 군포안마방 어플 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 군산출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    횡성출장안마☜예약금없는출장샵│횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성동대문구 안마방』▐﹛횡성서혜부 마사지 란﹜►횡성일본마사지✲횡성만짜이 마사지☠횡성싸인볼 마사지➚횡성안마방 초이스♨횡성마사지 가격

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 온라인카지노 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 온라인카지노 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    횡성출장안마•예약금없는출장샵╝횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성서산시 안마방』☀﹛횡성50m﹜┨횡성남부터미널 안마방┍횡성강서구 마사지⇪횡성상동 안마방♥횡성젖몸살 마사지➻횡성전주 마사지 추천

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    강진서울 안마방
    목포출장샵 의왕전국 안마방 부산출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    횡성출장안마☪출장부르는법✄횡성고양이 변비 마사지『횡성광주 대딸방』↤﹛횡성이종찬 마사지﹜✌횡성한국 안마방♫횡성사당역 안마방➻횡성섹슈얼 마사지☆횡성시흥동 안마방↴횡성교대 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.횡성출장안마횡성필승 안마방✏횡성용인 수지 마사지➼﹛횡성진해 마사지﹜횡성서울역 마사지☼횡성서면 마사지╉횡성다낭 호텔 마사지✈횡성지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지↘창원출장샵출장부르는법횡성이상근 마사지➵횡성옆광대 마사지┨〖횡성아쿠아 마사지 젤〗횡성성기 마사지↺횡성경기 광주 마사지♘횡성마산 마사지↧횡성남양주시 안마방ν횡성출장안마하동정자 안마방횡성아산 안마방◀횡성홍진호 안마방✑﹛횡성안마방 움짤﹜횡성다방 모텔┕횡성서현역 안마방ロ횡성안마사✲횡성동대구 마사지◄횡성출장 만남 대행┙횡성강남 안마방 내상⇩〖횡성대만 마사지〗횡성24시간 마사지╠ 횡성철구 마사지◦횡성긴장성 두통 마사지↬횡성시엠립 밤문화 마사지♟횡성fc2 안마방☣횡성상무지구 마사지▨『횡성전립선 마사지 tumblr』횡성천안 출장 만남♝횡성부산 마사지 추천フ횡성안마방 체크카드⇆횡성일산 여관╅횡성구글 재펜☇횡성새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트┓『횡성얼굴 림프 마사지』횡성홍성 안마방☚ 횡성안마방 한번싸면╥횡성안마방 엉덩이×횡성전주 안마방➻24시출장샵함평삼산동 안마방24시출장샵횡성연동 안마방♪횡성대구 안마방╩[횡성일본놈 길거리 한국여자 꼬셔사 마사지]횡성종아리 마사지⇗횡성마산 안마방⇪횡성애인대행♪횡성푸켓 크리스틴 러브 마사지✡횡성출장안마횡성출장안마카지노사이트횡성온양 마사지횡성마사지 품번 추천횡성건식 마사지횡성안마방 터치횡성출장안마횡성안마방 초이스 torrent⇛횡성천안역 여관ハ﹛횡성출장서비스﹜횡성안마방 아이돌♀ 횡성오일 전신 마사지シ횡성출장가격♕횡성원룸 출장☾계룡릉콜걸샵

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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